Botox is a drug made from a neurotoxin known as “botulinum toxin”. It is used both in cosmetics procedures to remove wrinkles and medically in the treatment of muscular conditions.Botox is also sold commercially under the name “Vistabel”.


The bacterium that forms Botox is found in both forest and cultivated soil as well as in the sediment of lakes, streams and coasts. It can also be discovered in the intestines of fish and mammals as well as in the viscera of shellfish. These bacteria are harmless. The only issues that can occur is when the spores turn into actively growing cells. When the cells grow they overpopulate and thus die, which produces a neurotoxin known as “botulism”. This neurotoxin is lethal.The neurotoxin involved inthe production of Botox, botulinum toxin, is divided into eight types lettered from A to H. Subtypes A, B, E and F can cause human botulism. Type H has had its DNA sequence withheld from public databases, as no antidote for it is currently known.

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How it works

It is important to remember that botulinum toxin is a deadly substance. Scientists believe that every human being on earth could be wiped out with just two kilos of it. Botox can result in botulism, a life-threatening condition.Botulinum toxin can be a valuable therapeutic protein, but the dosage has to be monitored carefully. It can be injected into humans in small doses. It works by stopping nerve cell signals from reaching the muscles, which paralyzes them.Nerves release a chemical messenger known as “acetylcholine” where the endings meet muscle cells, which allows the muscles to contract. Acetylcholine attaches on to the muscle cells’ receptors, which makes muscle cells shorten. Botox reduces abnormal muscle contraction, which allows muscles to loose stiffness. You can find out more here.


Botox is most famously used as a product that can remove wrinkles and lines in aged faces. It can also treat over 20 medical conditions, ranging from chronic migraines through to an overactive bladder.

The procedure

Botox, in powdered form, is diluted in a saline solution and then injected into the neuromuscular tissue. This takes between one to three days to come into effect, disrupting the synaptosmal process. Some individuals will need as much as five days forthe Botox to come into effect, although this is rare.Pregnant or lactating women should not use botulinum toxin.

Side effects

Side effects that can be caused by the application of Botox include nausea, ptosis of the upper lids and brows, dysphagia, hives and rashes.

By Leonel Thompson

Anna Thompson: Anna, a former fashion editor, offers readers a curated look into the world of high fashion. Her blog features runway analysis, designer profiles, and style tips.